The nice thing about Psychology is that we can apply lessons learned to our daily lives, become more aware, and live to our fullest. Being self-aware and creating our own identity is an important, almost necessary concept we should practice every day.
Erikson’s Developmental Stage theory, is nothing too fancy or complicated. It’s a simple view on eight stages we go through in our lives. According to Erikson, we grow from infancy to late adulthood, and in each stage we must master a new challenge. Once we master a challenge, we gain a certain set of skills. If we do not master a certain challenge, there could be possible psychological consequences. It is not a definitive list, but there are lessons we can learn from his eight stages!
Using this as a guide, identify what you’ve accomplished, what you need to work on, and what you should remember for your future stages.
Infancy (birth to 18 mos.)
- The challenge: Trust vs. Mistrust
- What it means: We must learn to trust parents’ care and affection or else develop the beginning of a deep distrust and view world as unsafe.
- What to take from it: Don’t just take care of your children, let them feel comfortable and safe when you’re around. Let them know, even if they are still too young, that they can trust you.
- Do you trust the world around you? Do you have hope?
Toddler (18 mos. to 3 yrs.)
- The challenge: autonomy vs. shame and doubt
- What it means: We learn to be competent by learning to feed ourselves, use the toilet, and play alone or else we will feel ashamed and doubt our abilities.
- What to take from it: Encourage toddlers to be autonomous individuals who can begin to take care of themselves.
- Do you have strong willpower?
Preschool (3 to 5 yrs.)
- The challenge: initiative vs. guilt
- What it means: We use our own initiative in planning or carrying out plans or if we cannot live within parents’ limitations, we develop a sense of guilt over misbehavior
- What to take from it: A child should be encouraged to start projects for their own purpose. Having the ability to take initiative without feeling guilty will allow one to plan and judge accordingly giving one a sense of roles.
- Have you found your purpose and role in life and are you satisfied with it?
School age (5-11 yrs.)
- The challenge: industry vs. inferiority
- What it means: We learn to meet the demands imposed by school or home or else we come to believe we are inferior to others
- What to take from it: Our responsibilities are what we use to prove to others that we are capable and on equal grounds to others. If we take on no responsibilities, we may begin to feel inferior. Work hard at being productive and responsible.
- Do you feel competent?
Adolescence (11-18 yrs.)
- The challenge: identity vs. role confusion
- What it means: In this stage, we acquire a sense of our own identity or else become confused about our role in life
- What to take from it: Settle on an identity that you are comfortable with. Ask questions about yourself. Show through your actions, appearance, and achievements what you want your role to be in life.
- Who exactly are you? Are you happy with it?
Young Adulthood (18-40 yrs.)
- The challenge: intimacy vs. isolation
- What it means: We develop a couple relationship and joint identity with a partner or else become isolated from meaningful relationships with others
- What to take from it: Here, we still want to have an identity with the world around us. If you fear rejection, forming intimate relationships will be difficult.
- Are you open to new, close relationships? Do you fear rejection and being vulnerable? Erikson argues that:
“Intimacy has a counterpart: Distantiation: the readiness to isolate and if necessary, to destroy those forces and people whose essence seems dangerous to our own, and whose territory seems to encroach on the extent of one’s intimate relations” (1950)
Middle adulthood (40-65 yrs.)
- The challenge: generativity vs. stagnation
- What it means: We make use of our remaining time developing a concern with helping others and guiding the next generation or else we become self-centered, un-accepting of not being to see the far future, and stagnant
- What to take from it: Help growing and grown children to be responsible adults, relinquish central role in lives of grown children, accept children’s mates and friends, be proud of accomplishments of your self and your mate. In this stage, we may have much leisure time.
- Will you use that time to benefit the next generation and yourself or become stagnant?
Late adulthood (60+)
- The challenge: integrity vs. despair
- What it means: We reap the benefits of our early stages and understand and sccept the meaning of a temprary life or else we despair over regrets, not having enough time, and not finding meaning in life
- What to take from it: In this stage, we tend to evaluate whether we’ve reached our goals and whether we are satisfied. From here, we can choose to accept the kind of life we lived and are living now or we can mourn over the past, our loss of time, and our fate.
- What kind of life have you lived? Did you do what you wanted? Do you have regrets? Would you have done things differently?
By looking at what is to come, we are able to ensure – through every stage – that we are happy with the life that we live. Take each stage into consideration when making choices in your life. Go down the road you feel you will be happy with in the end.
We have long, long lives to live so make sure you enrich it and give it its full potential. If you couldn’t face a certain crises before, it’s all right. We’ve been given the ability to question our lives and behaviors and the ability to change them whenever we can. Use it!